During the past two decades, virtually all developing countries shifted from state-led to market-oriented neoliberal economic policies. This book analyzes fresh evidence from Southern Mexico about the effects of this global wave of policy reforms. The evidence challenges the widely held view that these reforms have set countries on a convergent path toward unregulated markets. The analysis shows that free-market reforms, rather than unleashing market forces, trigger the construction of different types of new regulatory institutions with contrasting consequences for economic efficiency and social justice.
Many environmental problems cross national boundaries and can be addressed only through international cooperation. In this book Robert Darst examines transnational efforts to promote environmental protection in the USSR and in five of its successor states--Russia, Ukraine, and the Baltic republics of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania--from the late 1960s to the present. The core of the book is a comparative study of three key issues: nuclear power safety, transboundary air pollution, and Baltic Sea pollution.Although expectations were high that the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union would lead to increased East-West environmental cooperation, the opposite has been true. Russia and the other successor states have generally agreed to address such problems only when paid to do so. Darst finds that post-Cold War environmental cooperation has been most successful when there is an overlap between the environmental and economic interests of the successor states and those of their Western neighbors, and when the foundation for cooperation was laid during the Cold War period.The book is based on extensive original field research, including interviews with diplomats, government officials, scientists, and environmental activists in the successor states and Western Europe. Its findings underscore the importance of the domestic and international political context in which international environmental policy making occurs. It also deepens our understanding of the opportunities and dangers of positive inducements as a tool of international environmental policy.
The 2000-2001 academic year saw the release of a major publication from the Academy's Global Cultures Program. Arising from a 1999 Harvard Academy symposium, Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress was published in 2001 by Basic Books. The book is edited by Lawrence Harrison (an Academy affiliate and author of Underdevelopment is a State of Mind) and Academy Chairman Samuel Huntington.
Culture Matters examines the question of why some countries and ethnic groups are better off than others, and the role that cultural values play in driving political, economic, and social development. A distinguished group of scholars, journalists, and practitioners looks at the role of culture in developmental contexts across the globe. Among this diverse group of contributors are Francis Fukuyama, Nathan Glazer, Ronald Inglehart, Seymour Martin Lipset, Orlando Patterson, Michael Porter, Jeffrey Sachs, and Richard Shweder. Most of these contributors but not all conclude that cultural values are a powerful factor in promoting development and value change is indispensable to future progress in underdeveloped countries.
Described as "stunning" by Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Culture Matters was favorably reviewed in such diverse publications as Time, The Wall Street Journal, and Foreign Affairs. It has stimulated extensive discussion in the United States and other countries, been the subject of a long story in The New York Times, and is being translated or has been translated into seven foreign languages.
In 1999, responding to the initiative of Academy Scholars Peter Andreas and Timothy Snyder, the Academy sponsored a project and a conference dealing with the efforts of the United States and Western European countries to control immigration. This resulted in a book, The Wall Around the West: State Borders and Immigration Controls in North America and Europe (Rowman and Littlefield, 2000), edited by Snyder and Andreas.
In March 2001, the Academy held a symposium on the issues raised by the book. Challenging the conventional wisdom of a "borderless" future, The Wall Around the West demonstrates that, far from disappearing, many borders are being redrawn and reinforced by state regulators. Focusing on economic divides in North America (the southern border of the United States) and Europe (the eastern and southern borders of the European Union), the contributors to the volume show how the regulatory apparatus of the state is being "transformed, not transcended" in such important issue areas as trade, immigration, and drug trafficking. At the March symposium, the editors responded to commentaries on the volume by Academy Senior Scholars Samuel Huntington and John Coatsworth, as well as Academy Scholar Keith Darden.